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The five chaebols were required to submit combined financial statements from the fiscal year 1999. Management control will be shifted to a Board of Directors with adequate monitoring by outside directors and independent auditors. Find such equity investments for 12 of the 63 firms (19%) in their sample, resulting in the investors owning a median of 54% of the reorganized firm’s stock.

However, the global creditor landscape has changed significantly over the past decade. Low-income sovereigns’ largest creditors today—China and private bondholders—operate under much different principles than the leading bilateral creditors of the past, making the traditional norms and structures less effective for present debt challenges. The objective of the international financial architecture—historically overseen by the IMF and its shareholders— will be to corral these new creditors into a cooperative arrangement to deliver on debt relief.

Under the initiative, 48 of 73 eligible low- and lower-middle-income countries postponed debt payments to G20 bilateral creditors until DSSI expired at the end of 2021, ultimately suspending $12.9 billion in debt-service payments. Pr iva te creditor participation in DSSI was voluntary, and G20 countries urged private actors to seek participation on equal terms—but almost no private creditors engaged with the mechanism. DSSI was supported by the World Bank and the IMF, which advised on debt management and transparency practices and monitored public spending for participating countries. The firm’s outstanding debt was reduced through a so-called debt-for-equity swap in which other second lien creditors had agreed to exchange what they were owed for stock in the reorganized company. To initiate the process, a country must first determine whether it can continue servicing its debt or whether a restructuring is necessary. If a country owes more than it could realistically hope to pay at any point in the future, it is insolvent, and debt restructuring is needed.

Debt Restructuring

In mid-2015, SunEdison’s market value exceeded $10 billion with its shares trading at all-time highs. However, its bone crushing debt made it increasingly difficult for the firm to service its debt, forcing it to seek protection from its creditors by filing for bankruptcy in April 2016. The once Wall Street darling’s stock plummeted from its mid-2015 high of $33.44 per share to $.34 per share on the day of the bankruptcy filing announcement. Under Swiss law, debt restructuring may occur out of court, or through a court-mediated debt restructuring agreement that may provide for a partial waiver of debts, or for a liquidation of the debtor’s assets by the creditors.

Debt Restructuring

Enabled by data and technology, our services and solutions provide trust through assurance and help clients transform, grow and operate. It is the world’s biggest debt restructuring deal, affecting some 206bn of bonds. As of 2009 the firm was handling over 2,000 new debt restructuring cases each month. Because the system of debt restructuring is voluntary, and until we get the collective action clauses and the debt restructuring mechanism in place, moral suasion will remain important. In 2001, recovery was swift after completing their debt restructuring in 2000, and selling some of their subsidiaries, including those in coal mining and chemicals. Debt restructuring is a process of restructuring the company’s obligation facing financial difficulties.

If you’re thinking debt restructuring isn’t right for you, here are three alternatives to consider. Each type of debt restructuring has its own advantages and disadvantages that you’ll need to consider before making a decision. An IMF spokesperson said China and other official creditors have had a number of technical questions since its staff report and Debt Sustainability Analysis for Zambia’s programme request were published.


If Greece had its own currency it would have needed to devalue by at least 40 percent to get itself into a growth path, provided that other clauses like restructuring the labor market and promoting competitiveness are fulfilled. Of course, what is written about Greece is equally valid for Spain, Italy, Portugal, Slovenia, and Cyprus. That’s contagion and the trouble with high debt is that it tends to remain excessive. Several experts think that Greece will default on its debt following an insufficient overall debt reduction and the fact that there is no economic resurgence. Moreover, the second aid package left the country in an unsustainable debt situation. There is a difference between accepting 12th-hour financing conditions and returning to growth potential.

Since its establishment, the initiative has approved debt reduction packages for 37 countries, 31 of them in Africa, providing approximately $76 billion in debt-service relief in total. Debt restructuring can also result from filing Chapter 13 bankruptcy, which lets you repay the included debts with a court-approved repayment plan. The repayment plans generally last for three to five years, after which the remainder of the included debts are discharged. In a debt-for-equity swap, a company’s creditors generally agree to cancel some or all of the debt in exchange for equity in the company.

The debt restructuring process typically involves getting lenders to agree to reduce the interest rates on loans, extend the dates when the company’s liabilities are due to be paid, or both. These steps improve the company’s chances of paying back its obligations and staying in business. Creditors understand that they would receive even less should the company be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation. There is no international bankruptcy mechanism for countries that default on their external obligations. Instead, countries have historically depended on a patchwork of precedents, contracts, and conventions to bring creditors to the table for debt relief negotiations. The United States has a legacy as the lead architect of large global debt relief initiatives, from the Brady Bond plan for Latin America to the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative that kickstarted debt relief for poor countries in the 1990s.

In so doing, we play a critical role in building a better working world for our people, for our clients and for our communities. We cover a broad spectrum of services from analysing capital structure options and preparing proposals, through to negotiating and implementing those solutions with all relevant stakeholders. Where required, we draw on the broader range of EY complementary services, including operational restructuring services, valuation and financial modelling services, forensic accounting and tax consulting services.

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